In Germany, men and people with right-wing political orientation were more likely to participate in demonstration against refugees. People following public broadcasting media are less likely to demonstrate against refugees, while people following commercial broadcasting media are more likely to demonstrate against refugees. Reading newspaper did not influence political participation, whereas active use of social media associated with political participation – demonstrating either in support of or against refugees.
Arlt, D. (2017). Communication behavior and protest participation in the refugee debate: The role of personal conversations, mass media and social media usage in citizen participation. Studies in Communication | Media (SCM), 6, 81–94.